Nature of science (Lederman point of view)

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Nature of science (Lederman point of view)

Message par Serpio le Mer 29 Nov 2017 - 19:14

Lederman NOS list:
(1) Empirical basis
(2) Scientific theories and laws
(3) Creativity
(4) Theory dependence
(5) Cultural embeddedness
(6) Scientific method
(7) Tentativeness

The seven elements are:
1. The empirical nature of science, where they recognised that although empirical, scientists
do not have direct access to most natural phenomena. It is claimed that Students should
be able to distinguish between observation and inference An understanding of the
crucial distinction between observation and inference is a precursor to making sense of a
multitude of inferential and theoretical entities and terms that inhabit the worlds of
science (Lederman et al. 2002, p.500).

2. Scientific theories and laws, where they hold that laws are descriptive statements of
relationships among observable phenomena Theories by contrast are inferred
explanations for observed phenomena or regularities in those phenomena. Theories and
laws are different kinds of knowledge and one does not become the other. (Lederman et
al. 2002, p.500)

3. The creative and imaginative nature of scientific knowledge, where they hold that science
is empirical Nonetheless, generating scientific knowledge also involves human
imagination and creativity. Science is not a lifeless, entirely rational and orderly
activity. scientific entities, such as atoms and species are functional theoretical models
rather than copies of reality. (Lederman et al. 2002, p.500)

4. The theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, where it is held that Scientists
theoretical and disciplinary commitments, beliefs, prior knowledge, training, experiences,
and expectations actually influence their work. All these background factors form a
mindset that affects the problems scientists investigate and how they conduct their
investigations. (Lederman et al. 2002, p.501)

5. The social and cultural embeddedness of scientific knowledge, where it is held that
Science as a human enterprise is practiced in the context of a larger culture and its
practitioners are the product of that culture. Science, it follows, affects and is affected by
the various elements and intellectual spheres of the culture in which it is embedded. (Lederman et al. 2002, p.501)

6. The myth of scientific method, where it is held that There is no single scientific method
that would guarantee the development of infallible knowledge.. and no single sequence of
activities .. that will unerringly lead [scientists] to functional or valid solutions or
answers. ((Lederman et al. 2002, p.502)

7 The tentative nature of scientific knowledge, where it is maintained that Scientific
knowledge, although reliable and durable, is never absolute or certain. This knowledge,
including facts, theories, and laws, is subject to change. (Lederman et al. 2002, p.502)

Masculin Messages : 1817
Date d'inscription : 29/05/2011
Age : 22
Localisation : Ailleurs

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